Structure and biological function

PERIOSTIN (UniProtKB - Q15063), also known as osteoblast specific factor 2 (OSF-2), is a cell adhesion protein belonging to the fasciclin domain-containing protein family. It consists of 836 amino acids (aa) starting with a 21 aa long signaling sequence, followed by an Emilin-like domain rich in cysteine, four repeated fasiclin 1 and a C-terminal variable domain, which is different among the 7 splice variants (isoforms) in humans. PERIOSTIN is expressed during ontogenesis and especially in adult connective tissues submitted to mechanical stress such as bone, tendons, heart valves, skin and the periodontal ligaments. Further, it is widely expressed in aorta, stomach, lower gastrointestinal tract, placenta, uterus, thyroid and breast tissue. In bone, PERIOSTIN directly interacts with collagen type I, fibronectin, Notch 1, tenascin-C and BMP-1, resulting in enhanced proteolytic activation of lysyl oxidase for collagen cross-linking, thus stabilising the bone matrix. Next to its role in developing, maintaining and repairing of tissue, PERIOSTIN plays a vital role in tumorigenesis by interacting with various cell-surface receptors and signaling pathways e.g. resulting in inactivation of integrin- mediated signaling, leading to promoting cell adhesion and motility which is of relevance for tumor progression and metastasis.

Involvement in diseases :

A variety of studies have shown the value of PERIOSTIN as a Biomarker for diagnosis, therapy monitoring and patient stratification for respiratory tract diseases.
  • Serum periostin levels serve as a biomarker for both eosinophilic airway inflammation and fixed airflow limitation in well-controlled asthmatics. Takahashi K. et al., J Asthma 2018; 1-8.
  • Serum periostin during omalizumab therapy in asthma: A tool for patient selection and treatment evaluation. Caminati M. et al., Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017; 119(5): 460-462.
  • Serum periostin relates to type-2 inflammation and lung function in asthma: Data from the large population-based cohort Swedish GA(2)LEN. James A. et al., Allergy. 2017; 72(11): 1753-1760.
  • The use of PERIOSTIN as a prognostic marker for widely spread cancers (e.g. mamma- or colon-carcinoma) has been demonstrated. PERIOSTIN can be used as stand-alone marker or in combination with established markers to improve clinical prognosis.
  • Periostin: A Matricellular Protein With Multiple Functions in Cancer Development and Progression. González-González L. Alonso J., Front Oncol. 2018; 12: 8-225.
  • IIdentification of Serum Periostin as a Potential Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker for Colorectal Cancer. Dong D. et al., Clin Lab. 2018; 64(6): 973-981.
  • Epithelial periostin expression is correlated with poor survival in patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Kim G.E. et al., PLoS One. 2017; 12(11).
  • PERIOSTIN seems to enhance inflammatory processes in osteoarthritic tissue, thus contributing to the progression of the disease.
  • Influence of Periostin on Synoviocytes in Knee Osteoarthritis. Tajika Y. et al., In Vivo. 2017; 31(1): 69-77.
  • Expression and pathological effects of periostin in human osteoarthritis cartilage. Chijimatsu R. et al., BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015; 16: 215.
  • Serum periostin is associated with prevalent knee osteoarthritis and disease incidence/progression in women: the OFELY study. Rousseau J.C. et al., Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015; 23(10):1736-42.
  • PERIOSTIN serum levels change in presence of bone fractures and during their healing. Therefore, PERIOSTIN levels can be used for monitoring healing of fractures, however it has to be taken into account when interpreting serum levels for other diseases.
  • Serum periostin levels following small bone fractures, long bone fractures and joint replacements: an observational study. Varughese R. et al., Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2018; 14:30.
  • Periostin action in bone. Bonnet N. et al., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016; 432: 75-82.
  • Gene expression of periostin in the early stage of fracture healing detected by cDNA microarray analysis. Nakazawa T. et al., J Orthop Res. 2004; 22(3): 520-5.